Haloalkanes are alkanes with one or more halogen atom. Haloalkanes have the prefix chloro-, bromo-, or iodo-. They can be classed in a similar way to alcohols . Today, these are used for purposes such as fire retardants and modern refrigerants.
- Substitution by hydroxide:
The haloalkane undergoes simple substitution to change into an alcohol. This reaction occurs with alkalis in aqueous solution:
- Elimination by hydroxide:
A water molecule is eliminated when alkalis in ethanolic solution are added to haloalkanes: . An alkene is formed.
An alkali is first added, to convert the haloalkane into an alcohol and the ion in solution. Then silver nitrate is added...