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Without methods such as photography and modern digital technology, the only way to understand and learn about aspects of past history is by looking at available literature and archaeology. The course covers what archaeology is (‘the study of ancient things’), what methods it uses, how it is conducted and how evidence is analysed. The course explores the archaeology and history of Britain from the Late Iron Age Period to the fourth century AD when traditionally the Romans came and left Britain. This course provides an opportunity to enter a past world and to consider the lives and attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of people whose civilization is one of the foundation stones of our modern world – the Roman Empire. The course will also help build research, develop questioning skills and analytical skills which can be used in a wide variety of settings as well as for preparation for further study or practice of archaeology in Britain.
Course ContentThis course is comprised of 10 modules made up as follows:Module One - Iron Age Britain
This module introduces the Diploma course and presents the history of the island of Britain in the Late Iron Age before and after the invasions of Caesar in the 50s BC. It begins with an introduction to the discipline of Archaeology which began in the late 19th century (although people even Kings have been digging up sites for much longer), and links to how literary sources are used in the study of Roman Britain. Archaeology is often linked to Anthropology, the study of people. The peoples and tribes of Pre-Roman Britain are introduced along with the principles of Archaeology. The development of archaeology and the most common types of archaeological evidence as well as the processes used to investigate this is explored. The Romans dramatically changed the way life in Britain was administered and so this period continues to be studied, and knowledge is advanced as new scientific techniques emerges to help locate new Roman sites and better analyse artefacts in old sites.
Module Two - The conquest of Roman Britain AD 43-117 (Archaeological reconnaissance)
The second module examines the techniques used in archaeology such as how to locate sites, aerial photography, surveys, field walking and sampling. Initially sites were mainly based in cities, but later many rural sites were excavated, often found when building or construction work located them. Using literary and archaeological evidence derived from forts it is possible to trace the progress of the Roman army across Britain as well as resistance to the Romans by leaders such as Caratacus and Boudicca. The invasion of Britain by the Romans and the conquest of the island until the death of the Emperor Trajan is investigated chronologically and in detail.
Module Three – Excavating Roman Britain AD 117-221
Continuing with the theme of how to carry out archaeology, excavation processes is discussed in terms of how and why it is carried out since it is an expensive and destructive process. In the past land was simply dug, rather than being carefully excavated, as the usefulness of the discoveries became known, then the techniques were refined and carried out methodologically and judiciously. Layers or ‘strata’ provide a timeline of history and the rules of stratigraphy are essential for successful excavations since they provide an order of the finds. Throughout the course, historical overview of Roman Britain is continued, and in this section up to AD211 examining the reigns of Hadrian through to Septimius Severus. The famous landmark of Northern Britain, Hadrian’s Wall holds great interest so is explored in some detail, as well as demonstrating the resistance of the north to the Roman invasion.
Module Four: Government of Roman Britain (What survives in the Archaeological Record?)
One of the key influences of the Romans was the way they brought construction, organisational systems, new methods of planning, governance, finance and structure, e.g. extensive road systems in towns and villages. Thus, how the Romans managed to govern the island of Britain through its offices such as the Governors and Procurators; Client rulers as well as taxation and security measures taken to ensure that the province was run effectively is explored. The module also explores why some artefacts and features survive in the archaeological record and others do not. What survives and what factors determine what survives in the archaeological records include issues such as climate, human activity and what is chosen to be preserved and what is burnt or destroyed e.g. in war (but this in itself can preserve the site leaving carbonised remains as evidence of a burned-out village).
Module Five: The Roman Army in Britain
This module examines the Roman army in Britain; its role, its organisation as well as some of the military installations and the role in maintaining the Emperor as an Autocrat with power, prestige and position. Throughout the occupation of Britain, the Roman army changed in its role and structure in order to meet the challenges it faced e.g. as they became better organised they developed granaries and latrines that improved the health of the soldiers. The module also examines the role of geophysical surveying methods and the variety of tools used to undertake more precise surveys to identify excavations with precise structures, the best possible finds and results of past life.
Module Six: Rural Roman Britain – post-excavation analysis
Initially archaeology focused on Roman villas owned by the very rich and influential with most of excavations having been carried out on them, and yet very few people inhabited such structures. A case study of villas is, therefore, shown here. The majority of people in Roman Britain lived in village homesteads. It will take years to redress the number of excavations to balance the number of town studies to get a more equitable understanding of how the majority of people lived during this time. The rural aspects of Britain through the 1st to 5th century, and the pre-Roman settlements that continued throughout the Roman period are studied here. They call into question just how much Britain changed under the Romans when the majority of the population lived lives relatively unchanged from before the invasion. The module also examines how archaeologists scientifically examine excavated materials once they have been retrieved, and post-excavation analyses as well as techniques used to examine organic material such as bone or animal and human remains.
Module Seven: Dating and Urban centres in Roman Britain
Britain was predominantly rural prior to the arrival of the Romans who established urban centres. These centres had distinct characteristics and helped establish a formalised administrative and economy for Roman Britain. The Romans introduced formalised settlements on a scale never before perceived by the inhabitants of Britain. This module will examine the various kinds of settlement established by the Romans and will explore the reasons behind establishing these settlements. The methods used by Rome to ‘Romanise’ Britain is explored, e.g. by building an extensive road system, trade was attracted to the towns and villagers could get a better income. The principle dating methods used by archaeologists from those that can determine a relative date for a site or find, to absolute dating methods is considered. The value of biological material from pollen to the different layers of soil and what they contained was of great value in these dating methods.
Module Eight: Trade, Exchange and communication in Roman Britain
As facilities, trade and economy improved, so the resources obtained and global movement also improved. The Roman army was involved in extending and expanding the number and types of products from gold, corn, cattle and iron to greater range of metals including silver and lead, semi-precious stones, salt, stone and ceramics. Coal was relatively unknown to the Romans so the introduction of this material was valuable to them. This module will place Britain in the context of the wider Roman Empire and explore the villa economies and economic settlements established by the Romans.
Module Nine: Understanding Religion and Ritual in Roman Britain
Archaeologists use key concepts in anthropology and sociology to explore and explain the beliefs, rituals and religion by exploring the religious and ritual sites (e.g. towers, sacrificial slabs, altars, temples with finds of religious vessels and instruments) of Britain during the Roman period. To what extent did the Romans introduce new religions into Britain (including cults and Eastern influences) and to what extent did they preserved and adapt to pre-Roman gods. The various ritual centres and structures as well as objects are explored in the UK to gain a wider understanding of the Roman Empire. The examination of religion is particularly valuable in the study of archaeology as it enables us to try to understand how people thought, were like and behaved in the past.
Module Ten: The end of Roman Britain? Interpreting Archaeology
In summarising the course, we return to completing the chronology begun in earlier chapters. What caused the end of the Roman occupation of Britain and elsewhere, who else invaded the Island (the Gaul and Saxons as well as local invasions from the north of UK) and how this influence the changes to the economy and the way the country was administered. To this end it is important to consider Britain in the wider context of the Roman Empire, what different views explain the cause of the changes in the late eras, and the various challenges faced causing it to separate and return to the central administration. There were always some who did not succumb to the Roman Empire and difficulties with these people grew in later years. The module will also consider how archaeological evidence is presented to the public and why interpretations of this evidence can change as accurate techniques formed.
Diploma in Archaeology (Roman Britain)
This course is Quality Assured by the Quality Licence Scheme
At the end of this course successful learners will receive a Certificate of Achievement from ABC Awards and a Learner Unit Summary (which lists the details of all the units the learner has completed as part of the course).
The course has been endorsed under the ABC Awards Quality Licence Scheme. This means that Oxford Learning College has undergone an external quality check to ensure that the organisation and the courses it offers, meet certain quality criteria. The completion of this course alone does not lead to an Ofqual regulated qualification but may be used as evidence of knowledge and skills towards regulated qualifications in the future.
The unit summary can be used as evidence towards Recognition of Prior Learning if you wish to progress your studies in this sector. To this end the learning outcomes of the course have been benchmarked at Level 3 against level descriptors published by Ofqual, to indicate the depth of study and level of demand/complexity involved in successful completion by the learner.
The course itself has been designed by Oxford Learning College to meet specific learners' and/or employers' requirements which cannot be satisfied through current regulated qualifications. ABC Awards endorsement involves robust and rigorous quality audits by external auditors to ensure quality is continually met. A review of courses is carried out as part of the endorsement process.
ABC Awards is a leading national Awarding Organisation, regulated by Ofqual, and the Welsh Government. It has a long-established reputation for developing and awarding high quality vocational qualifications across a wide range of industries. As a registered charity, ABC Awards combines 180 years of expertise but also implements a responsive, flexible and innovative approach to the needs of our customers. Renowned for excellent customer service, and quality standards, ABC Awards also offers Ofqual regulated qualifications for all ages and abilities post-14; all are developed with the support of relevant stakeholders to ensure that they meet the needs and standards of employers across the UK.